Female infertility: everything a woman should know

Female infertility is a particularly interesting subject and much treated at a scientific level, which is why we need to clarify.

First of all it is good to clarify what is meant by infertility . This term defines the inability to conceive within one year of targeted attempts (or within six months if the woman is over 36 years old). By targeted tantivi we mean having intercourse in conjunction with the period of ovulation monitored through the observation of symptoms, the use of ovulation tests and monitoring of the basal temperature).

Obviously, infertility also means all those situations in which the pregnancy, unfortunately, is not completed . Furthermore, if a woman has never managed to get pregnant, she is diagnosed with primary infertility, while if she has had at least one pregnancy and a child it is referred to as secondary infertility.

In this field, medicine has made enormous strides, trying to study what are the causes that lead many women to not be able to get pregnant.

It must also be considered that infertility is not only a female problem, but that it also affects men, which is often not taken into consideration. It has been estimated that about 40% of infertility cases can be attributed to female infertility. Similarly men’s problems also account for another 40%.

The remaining percentage may be due to a combination of female and male infertility or there may be an unknown cause and in this case we speak of unexplained infertility.

Causes of female infertility

The causes of female infertility are many and interfere with the processes of reproduction, such as:

  • ovulation;
  • conception;
  • implantation of the embryo in the uterus

In addition to these are the risk factors that can compromise fertility, among these are:

  • old age;
  • cigarette smoke;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • overweight or obesity ,
  • have some sexually transmitted infections that can damage the reproductive system

Medical conditions of infertility

In addition to the elements already mentioned, there are medical conditions that can affect the female reproductive system and therefore cause infertility. These are:

  • ovulation disorders , caused by: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); or from hormonal disorders such as hyperprolactinemia;
  • pelvic inflammatory disease : an infection that can develop in the female genital system;
  • endometriosis;
  • uterine fibroids;
  • early menopause
  • scars and adhesions from previous surgery

In addition to these conditions, there are also factors related to drugs and drugs that can experience infertility.

Among the drugs and narcotics that can affect female fertility are:

  • chemotherapy or radiotherapy drugs;
  • long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs with a high dosage;
  • antipsychotic drugs;
  • drugs with marijuana and cocaine

It should be borne in mind that very irregular menstrual cycles and the absence of menstruation are precisely symptoms of non-ovulatory cycles.

As is well known , a woman’s fertility begins to decrease significantly after the age of 35-36 . Women under the age of 36 should see a fertility gynecologist after one year of targeted attempts, or only six months if they are over 36.

Certainly the doctor in the event that these conditions occur will ask the woman to check ovulation , before doing more in-depth tests, by ultrasound monitoring, with tests or by measuring the basal temperature.

Infertility Treatments

Obviously, as it has also been written previously, science has made great strides forward, so much so that there are several treatments that can be carried out to help a woman, eager to have children, to achieve her goal.

First of all, there is the possibility of surgical intervention, of taking drugs or of resorting to assisted fertilization . For the moment, surgery is much rarer, as there have been great advances with other more innovative techniques. However, surgery can improve fertility in the following cases:

  • to correct an abnormally shaped uterus;
  • to make the fallopian tubes patent;
  • to remove fibroids

Endometriosis can also be treated with surgery if medical therapy fails or when the cysts increase considerably up to 3 cm in diameter.

In addition to this, however, there are an infinite number of drugs that can help the woman to regulate the activity of hormones related to reproduction and there are also treatments for the thyroid that serve to stimulate the growth of follicles and to support the luteal phase.

If the problem of infertility were to be linked to weight problems, it is necessary to intervene first on the latter perhaps through paths with nutritionists.

Finally, there are assisted treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI) and ICSI, a type of in vitro fertilization

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