Hemoglobin in children. Norm

While still in position, the woman was faced with the issue of the concentration of hemoglobin in her blood. With the appearance of a baby in the family, it becomes relevant in relation to the child. To be calm about the health of the crumbs, you need to know what hemoglobin indicator is considered the norm in children at different ages. But, first, let’s take a look at what hemoglobin is and why everyone is concerned about its low / high content in the body of a little man.

Hemoglobin. What is he like?

Hemoglobin is a protein in our body, consisting of two components: iron, which carries out the task of transporting oxygen throughout the body and protein, which forms immunity. It also has a base for erythrocytes.

Consequently, the lack of hemoglobin leads to oxygen starvation of the cells of the body, its tissues, internal organs, brain, plus, in addition, weakened defense mechanisms of the body. Too high a hemoglobin level is also not an indicator of health under normal conditions. Contains hemoglobin in our blood. For this reason, in order to determine its concentration, a general blood test is taken, and already in it the amount of that very hemoglobin is determined.

But, there are three forms of hemoglobin:

  • glycolized – occurs when glucose is attached to normal, normal hemoglobin. Its overestimated level in the body indicates the presence of a disease such as diabetes mellitus;
  • fetal – there is a large number in children of the first two months of life and is considered a normal state for them, gradually, its indicator decreases (by the year it practically disappears), and in adulthood it is only 1% of all hemoglobin. Its greater presence in the blood after 3 years diagnoses the presence of cancer;
  • adult hemoglobin: oxyhemoglobin is the one that transports oxygen molecules in the blood from one organ to another (from the lungs throughout our body); and a reduced hemo-protein that removes carbon dioxide outside our body.

All these three forms of hemoglobin have their own meaning, both for an adult and for a tiny person. Therefore, it seems that there will be very little to consider only free (adult) hemoglobin.

How does hemoglobin manifest itself in the body with an increased / decreased concentration level?

So, as we indicated above, a certain overestimated indicator of hemo-protein in the blood indicates a disease with diabetes mellitus, while its norm, both for an adult and for a child, is within no more than 5.7% of free hemoglobin, at 6, 4% have an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and with more than 6.5%, they are already diagnosed with this disease. It is dangerous because it damages the kidneys, cardiovascular, nervous systems, and negatively affects vision.

There are two types of diabetes mellitus: the first and the second. The first can occur in an infant. Therefore, a blood sugar test must be taken periodically in order to prevent this disease and provide comprehensive, timely assistance to the child. The second type of this disease can occur in children from 10 years old, if they are burdened with excess weight.

Fetal hemo-protein for a child under one year old is the norm. If it does not dissolve by the age of three, then the child is examined according to the instructions of pediatricians and other medical specialists, as this indicates the presence of diseases.

If we consider adult hemoglobin (that is, normal), then its concentration in the blood, both above the norm and below, is negative for the body. Further we will talk only about this form of hemoglobin.

With an increased hemoglobin index, there are the following deviations in the body, both of a child and an adult:

  • increased blood coagulability, up to blood clots;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • obstruction in the intestines;
  • the presence of polycythemia;
  • peritonitis.

With a low level of hemo-protein, they talk about anemia, which is accompanied by general fatigue, lethargy, wilting of the skin; in children under one year old, against a background of weakened immunity, constipation, dysbiosis, candidiasis (thrush), inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, and developmental delay are frequent. From the point of view of psychosomatics, these children are not endowed with vital energy, since they do not fully feel the love and care of their parents, and therefore, as it were, they do not even want to live (in other words, they are not needed by anyone, they interfere, therefore it is better not live).

At what numerical indicators is anemia diagnosed?

A low level of hemoglobin concentration in the blood is a reason to diagnose anemia. But, hardly any of the ordinary parents without medical education knows that anemia can be different. There are folate-deficiency, iron-deficiency anemia, and B12-deficiency anemia.

Depending on the numerical indicator, which is outside the norm towards “minus”, the following levels of the disease are distinguished: mild, moderate and acute anemia.

The diagnosis of “mild anemia” is given to children from 6 months to 5 years old with a hemoglobin index of 100-110 grams per liter. For babies less than six months, this figure drops to 90-100 grams per liter. For children 5-11 years old ― 110-114 g per liter, for 12-14 year olds – 110-119 g per liter.

The average degree of hemoglobin is determined at a numerical value of 100-90 for children from 6 months to 5 years. Babies from 0 to 6 months are given this diagnosis with an indicator of 80 grams per liter. In children 5-14 years old, this indicator moves to a value of 80-110 grams per liter.

An acute degree of hemoglobin occurs with a numerical value of less than 70 grams per liter, regardless of the age of the child.

What can be the cause of anemia in children at any age?

Depending on the age of the child, a different numerical indicator of hemoglobin is allowed. But the preconditions for its decrease at different age periods are different.

So for a newborn baby, the cause of anemia can be:

  • loss of blood during birth due to premature placental abruption or ruptured umbilical cord;
  • increased death of erythrocytes with low bone marrow reproducibility (more often, of course, it occurs in premature babies);
  • a disease with spherocytosis, which is characterized by the disintegration of erythroites due to their irregular shape, or hemolytic disease, in which the baby’s erythrocytes are destroyed by the antibodies received from the mother;
  • infectious diseases such as rubella, syphilis, herpes;
  • a small amount of hemoglobin that comes with food (in this case, mother’s milk).

For children 2-6 years old (preschool age) and 6-13 years old (school age), the cause of anemia is often:

  • large blood loss due to any injury;
  • disharmonious, disturbed nutrition, in which the child receives a small amount of iron and vitamins (C, A, B12), minerals (manganese, copper) from foods that help in its absorption;
  • disharmonious lifestyle: mobility, insufficient for the body, short duration of stay in the fresh air;
  • ailments caused by viruses and infections;
  • hereditary diseases such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia.

How to raise hemoglobin

With a mild degree of anemia, you should pay attention to the nutrition of the child, his lifestyle.

The first step, of course, is to establish the correct, well-balanced nutrition for the child. In this case, the best products are dry varieties of fish, rabbit meat, turkey, veal, eggs, liver, from plant products – legumes, rice, buckwheat, dried fruits. The presence in the diet of proper nutrition of fruits and vegetables saturated with vitamins B, A, C, folic acid, promotes better absorption of iron. Regarding the same iron, which is contained in green apples, it is good to know that it differs somewhat in its structure and is less absorbed by the body than the same one obtained from meat and fish.

Milk in the diet should be limited. It interferes with the absorption of iron.

For a child who feeds on mother’s milk, the mother’s diet also needs to be adjusted. And to introduce complementary foods on time, correctly and correctly, but complete. If the baby is artificially fed, then, undoubtedly, it is better to use adaptive mixtures.

The second thing that needs to be corrected is the child’s lifestyle, and sometimes the family as a whole: to walk more in the fresh air, to follow a more active lifestyle (playing sports, hiking, etc.).

With moderate anemia, medications containing iron in the form of vitamins, drops, injections are prescribed. In this case, pediatricians diagnose the child, look every 10 days.

In acute anemia, when hemoglobin counts fall below 70 g / liter, an urgent transfusion of donor blood is required.

But, the best cures for all ailments at all times remain a positive outlook on the world, love for life and others. Raise this in a child, devote to this issue and the very crumbs as much of your precious time and attention as possible, talk about your love for him, and all diseases will simply be afraid to approach him.

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