The baby was born, and the very next day mom, dad, recently so carefree and remembering only about their needs, will face the daily chores associated with caring for the baby. It’s good when an experienced dad’s mom or mom’s mom is around, who know how to take care of a child, what to do and when. But, more often it happens that the parents of the parents also remember little from the time when their children were tiny. Moreover, we want to note the fact that the young parents themselves will forget about all the nuances and details of caring for a newborn in a year or two. In this case, we read, watch, enrich ourselves with experience.
Baby’s daily routines
The daily chores of the parents of the newborn are to provide the baby with cleanliness, warmth, comfort, satiety and fresh air as much as possible. Caring for a baby is not an easy task, but every loving family can do it.
So, like every person, a newborn needs a morning toilet (washing with wiping wrinkles, treating the umbilical wound, changing diapers, caring for nails, nose and ears), feeding, healthy sleep and walking in the fresh air. In addition, for a baby from 1 month old, massage is needed.
Now let’s look at all these elements of baby care in more detail.
How many times and how to wash a newborn
Every morning for the baby starts with water procedures. They, of course, are not the same as for adults or older children. To wash a newborn, it is necessary to prepare: a place for the morning toilet crumbs (cover the changing table), boiled water (a cup is enough), cotton pads, cotton wool, baby oil, a clean diaper, clothes.
The procedure is carried out after the child wakes up: smile at him, talk, after 5-10 minutes of communication, start washing.
Cleanliness starts with the baby’s head and ends with intimate hygiene.
Let’s get started: first, you need to strip the baby naked, examine his skin, if there is any redness, diaper rash, rash, then we will wash. It is necessary to moisten a cotton pad with warm boiled water (36-34 ˚С) and wipe the child’s eyes from the outer edge to the inner one. A separate cotton pad is taken for each eye. Then again, with a separate disc moistened with the same water, the face of the crumbs is wiped, then all the folds: the neck, behind the ears, armpits, fingers, legs. By wiping them, you remove all the crusts, the collected obsolete particles of the epithelium. The same folds are then lubricated with purified sterile oil (olive or special baby oil, bought at the pharmacy) or baby cream.
For diaper rash, use a powder (it dries). It is worth paying special attention to the ears and nose of the child. The ears are processed only from the outside (auricles) with dry cotton swabs. The nose is cleaned with cotton filaments slightly dipped in the same baby oil. There is a separate flagellum for each nostril.
Change of diapers and intimate hygiene of the baby
Let’s move on to intimate hygiene: wash the newborn with warm water or wipe his groin area with baby wet wipes (better, of course, wash) from the front edge to the back. Then we lubricate this area with baby oil or cream. If necessary (for diaper rash), use a special cream (for example, Panthenol for children for diaper rash) or powder. We put on a diaper.
Attention! The diaper changes after each urination (even if it costs a lot of money and your efforts – a newborn baby pees at least 12 times a day)! It doesn’t matter if it’s a gauze diaper or store / pharmacy. This is recommended by both pediatricians and manufacturers of hygiene products for babies. At each change of the diaper, wipe the intimate parts of the baby, give him the opportunity to walk for 15 minutes without a diaper (take air baths). The diaper is worn so that it does not touch the navel.
How to handle folds and navel
Above, we described the procedure for processing folds. It would be worth adding that for dry skin, baby (purified, sterile) oil or baby cream is used, and for diaper rash (they are red, somewhat wet) – powder. In case of severe redness, rash, dermatitis, use special children’s medicated creams without fail.
Analyze the possible reasons for this situation (overheating, late diaper change or it does not suit your baby) and try to exclude them, because the baby’s skin is very delicate and requires attention and care.
In the previous videos, instructions for caring for the baby’s navel were already given, but we will also describe it, since it is important (the navel heals gradually and needs special care). The navel is wiped every day (morning, evening), after water procedures with a cotton swab moistened with hydrogen peroxide from the periphery to the center: the fold is opened and well processed, removing all crusts, mucus, etc. Some pediatricians then recommend using an antiseptic (brilliant green, iodine, calendula tincture, potassium permanganate 5%).
Some doctors say that it is enough to wipe the navel with boiled warm water several times a day. What approach does your baby need, you will be advised by a visiting nurse who will visit you at home on the second day after discharge from the hospital. The navel heals in 15 days. This time the baby is not recommended to bathe in the bath. It is worth doing with rubbing, washing. If the navel has not healed in two weeks, contact your pediatrician, if the bottom turns red, contact your pediatrician.
After all these procedures, the baby can be dressed, fed, put to bed. Rubbing, treating the navel, nose, ears, all this takes place with the baby’s morning toilet and after bathing in the evening before going to bed.
How to bathe a newborn
It is not recommended to bathe the baby until the navel heals. And as soon as it happened, go ahead! Vodicka has a positive effect on the well-being of the baby: he relaxes, gets positive emotions from communication with parents.
They bathe in warm water (36˚C) with herbs (chamomile, sage, string, oak bark, etc.) or special foam for bathing newborns. In the first case, you need to be careful, as herbs can cause an allergic reaction, and in the second, be extremely careful about the choice of hygiene products for the crumbs (trust only patented, well-known manufacturers of children’s cosmetics). Bathing the crumbs completely with soap, shampoo should be carried out 1-2 times a week.
It’s enough. It’s up to you to take boiled or raw water, but it doesn’t really matter. The crumb is placed in the bath / tub gradually, starting from the legs. It is good to put it there in a diaper, so the contrast between water temperature and room temperature (which should be 19-24 ˚С) is smoothed out. It is necessary to maintain the water temperature in the same state (36˚C), constantly measuring it with a thermometer and adding hot water.
After water procedures, the baby is dipped in a gentle baby towel. The time for bathing the baby is chosen immediately before bedtime (20.30-21.30), after which the baby goes through all subsequent hygiene procedures, eats and falls asleep calmly. Bathing lasts from 5 to 15 minutes. When you get stronger, then all 30 minutes can be spent in the bath.
In addition, it is worth paying attention to the baby’s nails: they are cut 1-2 times a week. For this, ordinary manicure scissors are best suited (no modern children’s scissors are so perfect). But they should only be intended for a newborn! On the handles, the marigolds grow faster than on the legs. It is necessary to monitor their growth, since the baby is able to scratch himself with his uncoordinated hands and fingers. Even if you put scratches on him, there is a chance that he will easily remove them. The nails are cut on the handles in the shape of a finger (oval), and on the legs straight.
Massage and exercise
Before each bathing of the baby from one month, it is recommended to do massage and exercises, this prepares him for water procedures, somewhat stimulates him to be active. This procedure begins with stroking, from the legs, heaps to the periphery.
Rubbing and other massage movements are performed no earlier than 2-3 months of age of the child, as he will be ready for this.
But exercise should be done right away: bending, unbending arms, legs.
How many times and how to feed the baby
The baby from birth to 6 months eats every 3-4 hours. Not less often than after 4 hours and not more often than after 3 hours. Thus, depending on the individual characteristics of the baby, he will eat 7 or 8 times a day. Individual characteristics in this case are the size of the stomach of the crumbs, its general condition and energy. It depends on how much he eats at once to get enough. Some children eat slowly, taking breaks “to sleep” (such babies just get very tired in the process of “getting” their mother’s milk), others eat quickly, eating up for 4 hours (strong children).
Some simply cannot eat a lot at once, since their ventricles are not ready for that. Be calm about the process of saturating the crumbs, even if it takes 40 minutes. Feeding for a baby is the first experience of communicating with a mother: tenderness, love, confidence, that’s what you are laying him at this moment.
Whether you are breastfeeding or feeding with a bottle, it does not matter: calmness, peace and joy, these are the main things for the baby.
When and how to feed? Listen to the child and he will tell you. You should not impose feeding on time, the child has his own regime. It will develop gradually (by a month) by itself if you:
- track the behavioral moments of the crumbs (when he wants to eat, before demanding it with shouts, he begins to turn his head from side to side, in search of the source of happiness – the chest);
- be ready to feed the baby by this moment (the mixture is not ready, mom washes the dishes, etc. – they do not go here for the benefit of your relationship with him).
Most often, there are children who eat 2-3 times at night. And, oddly enough, they all have 1.00, 3.00 and 5.00 hours. We have to get up … But milk is the most useful, and such a regime promotes lactation in the mother, if she is breastfeeding. Expressing, as previously recommended, is impossible (this disrupts the natural processes of milk formation in a nursing woman). This is possible only if the mother wants to feed her milk, but cannot do it for some reason. Such feeding will not last more than 4-6 months.
Find a position that is comfortable for the two of you and enjoy the moment of being together.
Putting the child to bed: when, how, on what
Putting a newborn baby to bed is also not necessary forcibly: he himself knows “when it is time for him.” Again, your task is to track this moment (rubs his eyes, pulls his ears, starts to be capricious) and be ready to provide him with such an opportunity. A newborn sleeps for 3-4 hours in a row, after which he eats and sleeps again. So the first or third month passes: the child sleeps for 16-20 hours a day. Gradually, sleep time decreases, and waking time increases. And at 6 months, the child sleeps only 14.5 hours a day, of which 3-4 daytime sleep.
But the question of what and where to sleep is already worth the attention and care on your part. For the first 2-3 months, the baby can sleep in his wheelchair, if there is a sufficiently hard and even surface. Then he can go to his crib or join his parents (in case he is in their bed at least once). So that the baby can sleep in the nursery and in the shared bed: the choice is for the parents. Requirements remain: a flat, fairly hard surface, no pillow (it is replaced by a four-fold sheet), free air movement (for this reason, it is better not to buy any different canopies for a children’s bed).
Regarding the room in which the newborn is located, it is worth pointing out that it should be sufficiently light, ventilated every 4 hours for 15-20 minutes, the air temperature in it should be 19-22 degrees, the humidity should be 50-70%. Wet cleaning should be done daily at first.
Walking in the fresh air with a baby is recommended on the 10th birthday. The first time the child gets acquainted with this regime moment occurs within 10 minutes, then each walk increases in duration by 5 minutes. and reaches 2-4 hours a day. But if you are one of those mothers who can walk with the baby and for 8-10 hours outside, in good weather, then there will be no harm from this. One has only to take into account the season, the weather and the peculiarities of the baby: in wet weather it is better to walk for 2-4 hours, in hot and cold (below 0) – even less, and at -10˚C, it is better to refuse to walk.
Dressing the baby is recommended according to the weather, like yourself, plus one more layer of HB clothing. Wrap up is not worth it: having evaporated, the baby will catch cold faster.
That’s all the recommendations for caring for a baby. In the event that any questions arise, do not hesitate to seek the advice of your patronage nurse. Her vocation: to help young parents to cope with the daily chores of caring for their baby.